Cover Crops Field Day, Tuesday November 29

The Boone County Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) and Boone County Extension Service are hosting a Cover Crops Field Day on Tuesday, November 29 from 8:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. The program will be held in the Annex Building at the Boone County 4-H Fairgrounds, located at 1300 E 100 S, Lebanon, Indiana.

The program will include a discussion of cover crop benefits and practices, herbicide management, discussion roundtables, and touring the cover crop plots to discuss production systems and issues and impacts on soil health. Program speakers include Barry Fisher and Mike Wigginton from the Natural Resources Conservation Service, AJ Adkins from Dawn Equipment, Hans Kok and Dan Towery, coordinators for the Indiana Conservation Cropping Systems Initiative (CCSI), Brian Daggy from the Boone County SWCD, Bree Ollier from the Hendricks County SWCD, and Curt Emanuel from Boone County Extension.

Lunch, sponsored by Dawn Equipment, will be provided. There is no cost for the program however pre-registration is requested to help with meal planning. To register call the Boone County SWCD at 765-482-6355, ext, 134 or send an e-mail to svaughn@co.boone.in.us. Much of the program will take place outside at the field plots so participants should dress accordingly.

Agenda
Field Day Agenda
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Fall, 2016 Cover Crops Planted

The cover crop strips were planted on October 18 this year. We planted four different “treatments.” These are:

  • Cereal Rye, seeded at a rate of 50 pounds per acre
  • A mix of Barley, Rape, and Vetch. Barley @ 33lb/ac, Rape @ 2.66 lb/ac, Vetch @ 10 lb/ac
  • Annual Ryegrass, Vetch, Crimson Clover, and Rape. Annual Rye @ 10 lb/ac, Vetch @ 5.3 lb/ac, Clover @ 5.3 lb/ac, Rape @ 3.33 lb/ac
  • Oats and Oilseed Radish. Oats @ 30 lb/ac, radish @ 3.33 lb/ac

Everything was planted using a drill. Strips are 40 feet wide and each cover crop mix was planted into two strips. We also have a no-till check strip. The image shows the layout.

Plot layout
Plot layout for cover crops planted in fall, 2016.

2016 Harvest

We harvested the plot on Tuesday, October 11. Total yield was 60 bushels per acre, not bad considering it was planted on June 1.

SWCD Supervisor Chris Branaman volunteered to harvest the plot for us.
SWCD Supervisor Chris Branaman volunteered to harvest the plot for us.

Even though harvested acreage was only a little over 7 acres, there were a couple of interesting items. First, as can be seen from the table at the bottom of the page, the presence of cover crops made little difference in yield. As this was the first year for cover crops, this was not a surprise. Check back in a few years to see if this changes.

We had weed issues on the southern side of the field. We don’t know why but the two southern strips, planted to cereal rye and annual ryegrass last fall, had significantly more weeds. However the northern strips using those two cover crops did not. We’re not sure if there was a problem spraying or what however yields for those two strips were lower.

10_10_161
The weeds – mostly grass – on the right covered two strip treatments. The rest of the field was relatively weed-free.

We had volunteer oilseed radish. The two oats/radish strips had some very lush plants. This also appears to have affected yields though not as severely as the weeds did. We don’t know why this happened. We planted last fall about two weeks after the recommended time but radish did germinate and emerge. This may have been from seeds which did not germinate last fall. It may also have been plants that did not winter kill. Last winter was extremely warm and even though oilseed radish typically winter kills, some may have survived. 1 Whatever the cause, it shows how a cover crop can become a weed.

Oilseed radish
Oilseed radish “infestation.”
kelsee_10_12_16
Our Purdue Extension intern holding a radish we “harvested” before cutting soybeans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most of the field looked good. We harvested by running a combine with a 20′ bean head down the center of each 40′ strip and stopped to measure from the yield monitor. This is not terribly scientific but we were looking for differences between strips, not absolute yield numbers.

Harvest in progress. We ran the combine down the center of each cover crop
Harvest in progress. We ran the combine down the center of each cover crop “treatment” to measure yield.

The following table shows the yields for the cover crop strips.

Click for a larger image to see yields.
Click for a larger image to see yields.
Map showing the cover crop strips planted in fall, 2016.
Map showing the cover crop strips planted in fall, 2016.

Our next step is to plant our 2016 cover crops. We also plan on soil testing the field. We do not expect to see much change in soil characteristics after just one year but plan to monitor this on a regular basis going forward.

1 Between December 1, 2015 and April 1, 2016 the lowest temperature in Whitestown, about 2 miles south of this field, was 19.7 degrees according to the National Weather Service. In fact, temperatures fell below freezing only in January and February. This is extremely warm for this area.

SARE Cover Crops Innovators Series

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) has funded the development of a series of videos featuring 23 farmers around the country discussing their use of cover crops and the benefits they’ve seen. Two Indiana and several Midwestern farmers are among those included.

The videos were produced by Kurtis Harms of the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension Service. You can find a link to the videos below.

Cover Crops Innovators Video Series

Terminated!

One of the most important issues related to cover crops is termination. Cover crops are great – until they compete with cash crops for nutrients, water, sunlight, space, etc. In a normal field situation a farmer will plant one cover crop or at least a single mix. In our case we had four different cover crop “treatments” to contend with. Despite this, we didn’t have any trouble terminating the cover crops in the entire area with a single herbicide mix.

cover crops terminated
Terminated cover crops in the plot area. Picture taken by Curt Emanuel on May 5, 2016, nearly three weeks after spraying.

The herbicide application we used was a burn-down of 1.5 lbs active ingredient(AI) glyphosate with 1 oz Sharpen (saflufenacil) sprayed/broadcast on April 16. There is little residual activity with this mix however, as you can see from the picture, it was very effective in terminating the cover crops as well as taking care of what weeds were present – which weren’t a lot, from what I saw, mainly chickweed and dandelion though I didn’t scout the field after the March 24 field day.

In 2014, the last time this field was planted in soybeans it had quite a bit of marestail (sometimes called horseweed, Latin name Conyza canadensis). In central Indiana marestail is often glyphosate-resistant and even when it isn’t, control becomes difficult once it gets above 6 inches tall. For this reason we will be using a Liberty variety of soybeans once it becomes dry enough to plant.

Purdue Extension has two publications that were useful in considering our herbicide selection: Biology and Management of Horseweed and Successful Cover Crop Termination with Herbicides.

It’s been cold and wet here for the past couple of weeks but we were fortunate to have some warm weather right after the burn-down which certainly helped with that application – as a general rule, daytime temperatures above 50 degrees for several days after herbicide applications increase the effectiveness. According to the National Weather Service daily highs in Indianapolis were at or above 80 degrees on April 17 through 20 (and 77 on the 16th), nearly ideal conditions. Hopefully things will dry up so we can provide a planting update in the near future.

Field Day – Cover Crops 101

We had a very nice turnout for our March 24 Field Day. We had a total of 24 at the program, 19 farmers, which we were very happy with.

March 24 Attendees
March 24 Attendees

Unfortunately the weather didn’t allow us to be outside that day but we anticipated this might happen and had taken quite a few pictures the day before when we were digging pits and we also had a couple of soil cores taken from fields which had long-term cover crops plantings. As a fringe benefit, we may have gotten a few additional attendees as nobody could do field work.

Boone County SWCD Technician Brian Daggy discussing soil cores with farmers.
Boone County SWCD Conservation Technician Brian Daggy discussing soil cores with farmers.

Our main speaker for the day was NRCS Soil Scientist Mike Wigginton. Mike went through what he found at the pits and discussed the impact cover crops have on soil fertility and health. A substantial part of the morning involved group discussion, almost a round table where farmers shared their experiences and knowledge.

NRCS Soil Scientist Mike Wigginton in one of the pits.
NRCS Soil Scientist Mike Wigginton in one of the pits.

The Plots

We dug six soil pits and here’s a short summary of what was found. Keep in mind that last fall was the first time cover crops have been planted in this area.

Cereal Rye:
We had two different cereal rye plantings. One strip was planted on September 29 and the other was planted November 4. One of the farmers on our advisory committee suggested the late planting of rye to demonstrate how, even if conditions keep you out of the field until late, you can still get a good cover crop stand. The plots demonstrated this nicely. In the earlier planted cereal rye Mike found roots to 32″ deep in a pit with a dense till (glacial till) layer at 36″. He found roots to 33″ deep in the late-planted cereal rye strip.

Cereal Rye. The tee shows where Mike found roots. The water is from lateral movement above the dense till.
Cereal Rye. The tee shows where Mike found roots. The water is from lateral movement above the dense till.
Late-Planted cereal rye showing good early spring growth and root development.
Late-Planted cereal rye showing good early spring growth and root development.

Annual Ryegrass:
Mike found roots 36″ deep in the Annual Ryegrass strip. As expected, there was also a large amount of roots in the top few inches of the soil profile.

Annual Ryegrass.
Annual Ryegrass.

Oats-Annual Ryegrass-Crimson Clover:
This plot was one of our mixes. The oats winter-killed and the clover was just barely starting to come back so most of what was present was annual ryegrass. This was one of the shallower soils with a dense tillage layer at 27″. Mike found roots to 22″. This strip is one where it would be interesting to come back in a few weeks to see how things progress.

Oats-Oilseed Radish:
The oats and oilseed radish both winterkilled. We had a very dry month or so after planting last fall and didn’t have a lot of top growth though our germination was good. This was another shallow soil with glacial till starting at about 25″ deep. One of the interesting things Mike showed us was a permeable area indicated by soil color. This is a point where a cover crop root could penetrate and, over time (a long time) could begin to change the soil structure.

The grey color indicates a permeable area which will allow root penetration.
The grey color indicates a permeable area which will allow root penetration.

No-till:
We dug a pit at our no-till “check” just to provide a visual contrast to the other plots. As you can see from the picture, there are no roots anywhere, not even in the top few inches. Even though weeds (and there were some) have root systems, they were very shallow and don’t provide much of a benefit.

No-till. You can see chickweed in the upper left of the photo but there are no visible roots, even near the surface.
No-till. You can see chickweed in the upper left of the photo but there are no visible roots, even near the surface.

The soil cores were very interesting as you could see roots 5 feet below the surface (which was the depth of the core).

You can't see the tape measure in this picture but the route identified by the golf tee is at about 60" depth.
You can’t see the tape measure in this picture but the root identified by the golf tee is at about 60″ depth.

This was a productive day with a lot of information shared. It will be interesting to compare these pictures with ones from future years to see if we can find any changes in soil structure, texture, color, etc., over time. It is unrealistic to expect significant changes in just a few months – the color and texture in the no-till strip did not vary significantly from the others – but in a few years we may see quite a bit.

March 24 Field Day Reminder

This is a reminder that we will be hosting a Cover Crops Field Day tomorrow, Thursday, March 24 from 9 a.m. to Noon (doors will open at 8:30 for coffee and donuts). The program will begin at the Boone County 4-H Fairgrounds Annex Building (the small building near the north entrance) in Lebanon, Indiana. If weather permits we will walk out and see soil pits in the County Education and Demonstration Area.

The forecast calls for rain and there is a chance that the weather will be bad enough that we’ll stay indoors. We dug the pits this morning and took a lot of pictures. We’ll also have some soil cores on hand. Even if it rains we’ll have a lot to talk about and will have the program as scheduled. We’ll just be talking about the pits from pictures rather than standing in the rain. If you are planning to attend please call the SWCD at 765-482-6355, ext. 134 or e-mail svaughn@co.boone.in.us.

You can find a flyer with additional information here.

The soil pits are dug!
The soil pits are dug!